Naar inhoud

Christiaan Schotte

Professor, Academic Staff



  • Gedragstherapie [Behavioural Therapy] Gevalstudies uit de gedragstherapie [Casestudies in Behavioural Therapy]


My research centers on two topics:

Depression, Affective Disorders

Keywords: Assessment, diagnosis, classification, cognitive behavioural therapy

A classification of instruments for the assessment of depression can be based on two major distinguishing features, namely (1) the differentiation between dimensional and categorical levels of measurement, and (2) the consideration of the influence of the applied method: questionnaire versus interview. Departing from this approach we evaluated the reliability and validity of several instruments measuring depression such as the Beck Depression Inventory, the Zung Depression Scale and the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (e.g., Schotte et al., 1996, 1997; for a review see Schotte & Maes, 2001).

The importance of the differentiation between dimensional and categorical levels of measurement can also be recognised within the discussion on quantitative/dimensional versus qualitative/categorical taxonomic views on depression. The Integrated Threshold Model was developed by our research group and integrates both the quantitative and the qualitative view on the classification of depressive disorders (e.g., Schotte et al., 1997; for a review see Schotte & Maes, 2001). Effective treatment of severe or chronic unipolar depression requires the combination of pharmacological and psychotherapeutic interventions and demands a theoretical paradigm integrating biological and psychosocial aspects of depression. Supported by recent research, the present essay proposes a biopsychosocial diathesis-stress model of depression. Its basic aim is psychoeducational: to provide therapists, patients and their environment a constructive conceptual framework to understand depressive complaints, vulnerability and stress.

Personality Disorders

Keywords: Assessment, diagnosis, classification, cognitive behavioural therapy

Our research considers methods, instruments, and strategies for assessing the personality disorders as described within the frame of the DSM-IV classification. However, we emphasize the interaction between diagnosis and treatment and recommend a two-tier diagnostic strategy for the diagnostic assessment of the personality disorders. Tier one results in a DSM-IV Axis II categorical diagnosis, whereas tier two refers to a dimensional, or functional approach, based on a biopsychosocial theoretical model and offering therapeutic prospects.

The application of this diagnostic strategy in the clinical context involves feedback to the patient, in which the descriptive evaluation is integrated with etiologic and pathogenic elements using an idiographic approach. This therapeutically oriented diagnostic strategy is exemplified by the use of our ADP-IV (Assessment of DSM-IV Personality disorders) questionnaire. Our approach constitutes a way to fill the (large) gap between the descriptive DSM-IV diagnostics and a (psycho)therapeutically oriented diagnostic view (e.g., Schotte , De Doncker & Courjaret, 2007). Publicaties & Presentaties / Publications & Presentations Click here for a complete list of publications & presentations.

Test Development

  • Hoofdauteur en ontwikkelaar van de Nederlandstalige ADP-IV vragenlijst, welke vertaald is in het Engels, Japans, Frans, Duits, Italiaans.
  • Hoofdauteur en ontwikkelaar van de ADP-IV Internettoepassing


List of publications...


Vrije Universiteit Brussel
Pleinlaan 2
1050 Brussels